When two metallic surfaces under direct contact move over each other, they create friction which generates heat. This causes excessive wear and tear of those moving parts. However, when a film of lubricating matter separates them from each other, they do not come in physical contact with each other. Thus, lubrication is a process that separates the moving parts by supplying a flow of a lubricating substance between them. The lubricant could be liquid, gas or solid. However, the engine lubrication system mainly uses liquid lubricants.

The engine lubrication system is to distribute oil to the moving parts to reduce friction between surfaces. Lubrication plays a key role in the life expectancy of an automotive engine. If the lubricating system fails, an engine would succumb to overheating and seizing quickly. An oil pump is located on the bottom of the engine. The oil is pulled through a strainer, by the oil pump, removing larger contaminants from the mass of the fluid.

The oil then forced through an oil filter under pressure to the main bearings and the oil pressure gauge. It is important to note that not all filters perform the same. A filter’s ability to remove particles is dependent upon many factors, including the media material (pore size, surface area and depth of filter), the differential pressure across the media, and the flow rate across the media. From the main bearings, the oil passes into drilled passages in the crankshaft and the big-end bearings of the connecting rod.

The oil fling dispersed by the rotating crankshaft lubricates the cylinder walls and piston-pin bearings. The excess oil is scraped off by the scraper rings on the piston. The engine oil also lubricates camshaft bearings and the timing chain or gears on the camshaft drive. The excess oil in the system then drains back to the sump.

Oil pan/sump: An oil pan/sump is just a bowl-shaped reservoir. It stores the engine oil and then circulates it within the engine. Oil sump sits below the crankcase and stores the engine oil when the engine is not running. It is located at the bottom of the engine to collect and store the engine oil. The oil returns to the sump by pressure/gravity when the engine is not in use.

Bad road conditions could cause damage to the oil pan/sump. So, the manufacturers provide a stone guard/sump guard underneath the sump. The sump guard absorbs the hit from the uneven road and protects the sump from any damage.



Oil pump: An oil pump is a device which helps to circulate the lubricant oil to all the moving parts inside the engine. These parts include crankshaft & camshaft bearings as well as valve lifters. It is generally located at the bottom of the crankcase, close to the oil sump. The oil pump supplies the oil to oil filter which filters and sends it onward. The oil then reaches different moving parts of the engine through oil galleries.

Even, small particles can choke the oil pump and galleries. If oil pump gets blocked, then it can cause severe damage to the engine or even complete seizure of the engine. To avoid it, the oil pump consists of a strainer and a by-pass valve. Hence, it is necessary to change the engine oil and filter at regular intervals as recommended by the manufacturers.

Oil galleries: To get better performance and longer engine life, it is essential that the engine oil quickly reaches the moving parts of the engine. For this purpose, manufacturers provide oil galleries within the engine. The oil galleries are nothing but a series of interconnected passages which supply the oil to the remotest parts of the engine.

Oil galleries consist of big and small passages drilled inside the cylinder block. The bigger passages connect to the smaller passages and supply the engine oil up to the cylinder head and overhead camshafts. The oil galleries also supply the oil to the crankshaft, crankshaft bearings and camshaft bearings thru holes drilled in them as well as to valve lifters/tappets.

Oil cooler: The oil cooler is a device which works just like a radiator. It cools down the engine oil which becomes hot. Oil cooler transfers the heat from the engine oil to the engine coolant through its fins. Initially, manufacturers used the oil cooler only in the racing/high-performance vehicles. However today, most vehicles use the oil cooler system for better engine performance.

Oil cooler which helps to maintain the engine oil temperature also keeps its viscosity under control. Additionally, it retains the lubricant quality, prevents the engine from overheating and thereby saving it from wear and tear.

How can one tell f one’s truck/car starter is bad?  My son’s 99 Dodge Dakota lags when it starts especially now that it’s getting cooler in our mountains.   I am not sure if it’s a battery and/or starter issue. In turning the key on the engine, it ‘lags’ giving some sounds before cranking up. Thanks in advance for any assistance you can provide.

Based on your explanation of the starter problem, I believe the battery is the culprit, due to the condition of the weather being cold in the mountain like you described. If the battery is getting old and the cells in battery drain because of the cold weather you are going to experience such problems in the morning or when the vehicle has been parked for a long time. I believe changing the battery will solve the problem.

I drive a Toyota Sequoia 2005 model. A few months ago while driving I noticed white smoke coming from under the engine. My mechanic worked on the transmission. The smoking stopped afterwards but I have the following problems now; (1) Gear mostly engages when I’m sloping down a hill or when I’m moving at a good speed. But before I attain that speed, the gear will not respond as I accelerate. Now my fuel consumption is double and this is really worrisome. (2)ABS sign is on for a week now. How long can I drive before I see the mechanic? Please advise me. Anonymous

I have a feeling that what caused the smoke is transmission fluid leaking onto the exhaust system and the heat of the exhaust burns it which caused the smoke. The leakage was fixed but the transmission has been damaged due to the leakage of the fluid from the transmission.

I drive a Honda Accord 2004 model. The engine begins to rev high on its own when it supposed to be on idle or moving. I’ve to turn off the engine & restart ii to be idle. Charles

Please run a scan on the powertrain system. The results will guide on what to do. Though I believe the problem is the idle control solenoid.

The glow plug system is used to assist in providing the heat required to begin combustion during cold engine temperatures. The glow plugs are heated before and during cranking, as well as initial engine operation. The engine control module controls the glow plug ON times by monitoring coolant temperature and glow plug voltage. The California glow plug system has eight individual glow plug supply circuits between the controller and the glow plugs. If the feedback voltage from the controller to the ECM is not within range, the ECM sets the OBDII code.

The glow plug system is used to assist in providing the heat required to begin combustion during cold engine temperatures. The glow plugs are heated before and during cranking, as well as initial engine operation. The engine control module controls the glow plug ON times by monitoring coolant temperature and glow plug voltage.

The California glow plug system has eight individual glow plug supply circuits between the controller and the glow plugs. If the feedback voltage from the controller to the ECM is not within range, the ECM sets the OBDII code.

The glow plug system is used to assist in providing the heat required to begin combustion during cold engine temperatures. The glow plugs are heated before and during cranking, as well as initial engine operation. The engine control module controls the glow plug ON times by monitoring coolant temperature and glow plug voltage. The California glow plug system has eight individual glow plug supply circuits between the controller and the glow plugs. If the feedback voltage from the controller to the ECM is not within range, the ECM sets the OBDII code.

The glow plug system is used to assist in providing the heat required to begin combustion during cold engine temperatures. The glow plugs are heated before and during cranking, as well as initial engine operation. The engine control module ontrols the glow plug ON times by monitoring coolant temperature and glow plug voltage. The California Glow Plug system has eight individual glow plug supply circuits between the controller and the glow plugs. If the feedback voltage from the controller to the ECM is not within range, the ECM sets the OBDII code.

The glow plug system is used to assist in providing the heat required to begin combustion during cold engine temperatures. The glow plugs are heated before and during cranking, as well as initial engine operation. The engine control module controls the glow plug ON times by monitoring coolant temperature and glow plug voltage. The California Glow Plug system has eight individual glow plug supply circuits between the controller and the glow plugs. If the feedback voltage from the controller to the ECM is not within range, the ECM sets the OBDII code.

The glow plug system is used to assist in providing the heat required to begin combustion during cold engine temperatures. The glow plugs are heated before and during cranking, as well as initial engine operation. The engine control module controls the glow plug ON times by monitoring coolant temperature and glow plug voltage. The California Glow Plug system has eight individual glow plug supply circuits between the controller and the glow plugs. If the feedback voltage from the controller to the ECM is not within range, the ECM sets the OBDII code.

The glow plug system is used to assist in providing the heat required to begin combustion during cold engine temperatures. The glow plugs are heated before and during cranking, as well as initial engine operation. The engine control module controls the glow plug ON times by monitoring coolant temperature and glow plug voltage. The California Glow Plug system has eight individual glow plug supply circuits between the controller and the glow plugs. If the feedback voltage from the controller to the ECM is not within range, the ECM sets the OBDII code.

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